Performance characteristics of stepper motor lab manual

Apparatus Required: Microcontroller kit, Interfacing kit, Keyboard, Monitor, SMPS for Microcontroller. Thus, no angular position feedback is needed for many stepper motor applications; stepper motors performance characteristics of stepper motor lab manual are mostly used in open loop fashion. Matlab/Simulink is used as a simulation tool for hybrid stepper motor enabling motor transient characteristics of current, voltage, torque and speed to be obtained. When feeding the engine, and in sleep need a certain amount of torque to the rotor one step forward, this is known as holding torque or (Holding torque) and is specific for each engine.C SERVO MOTOR AND PLOT ITS TORQUE SPEED CHARACTERISTICS. When selecting a stepper motor, you try to pick a motor that meets your speed and torque requirements plus some safety margin. Stepper motors are often misconceived as the lesser of servo motors, but as a matter of fact, they are highly reliable just like servo motors. Introduction Five - phase stepping motors in comparison with two phase stepping motors have improved performance characteristics because of its multiple number of phases. They cannot be driven by just connecting the positive and negative leads of the power supply.

EC EMBEDDED LABORATORY SYLLABUS LIST OF EXPERIMENTS 1. We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us. 9. Apparatus Required: Microcontroller kit, Interfacing kit, Keyboard, Monitor, SMPS for Microcontroller. Study of ARM evaluation system 2. 3.

A Stepper Motor is a type of Brushless DC Motor that divides a full rotation into several equal “steps”. The purpose of this experiment is to design and implement a close-loop speed control of a DC-motor drive. (i)Torque-Angle curve.

9. 9. Mar 15, · Generally, servo motor technology offers the advantages of more torque, higher speeds, and greater precision as compared to stepper motor technology in a similar size range. Stepper Motor Performance Characteristics: Resolution: This is number of steps per revolution.

Most suppliers provide speed – torque characteristic curves to provide an idea of what performance can be expected from a motor.Mar 12,  · How I said, this motor is connected to MLP Driver High Performance Microstepping Driver.C SERVO MOTOR AND PLOT ITS TORQUE SPEED CHARACTERISTICS. 6.

On the other hand, torque characteristics of stepper motors are not flat. MOSFET (or) IGBT based single-phase full-bridge inverter connected to R- load. Lab Permanent Magnet Stepper Motor 1 Objectives In this laboratory experiment you will be working with a small 2-phase Permanent Magnet Stepper Motor standard frame size NEMA It is assumed that the motor parameters and the name-plate information are unknown. To study and analyze Speed control of a separately exited DC motor, Universal motor and stepper motor. Speed control of universal motor using A.

C. There are two characteristic curves 1 and 2 shown in the figure below. To study and analyze various waveforms across different circuit elements in Parallel / series inverter Course Outcomes: The student will have the Ability: To conduct and analyze V-I characteristics of SCR and DIAC. - FHPP manual ‚[HOST]-CMM-FHPP- ‛: Description of the implemented Festo profiles for handling and positioning. 5.

7. The following circuit is for a stepper motor controller. The biggest impact on the linear motion performance of a motor requires a look under the hood at the internal design of the motor. Aim: To study implementation & interfacing stepper motor with microcontroller. 1. During this lab, you will determine its most relevant parameters and. We also offer Geared Stepper Motors for applications with higher torque requirements. Strain measurement system 25 Experimentation on the characteristics of LVDT position sensor with respect to the differential voltage 27 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION & ENGINEERING POWER ELECTRONICS LABORATORY 1.

Interfacing keyboard and LCD. When selecting a stepper motor, you try to pick a motor that meets your speed and torque requirements plus some safety margin.C. It is divided into two charteristics. From Hybrid NEMA Stepper Motors, as small as NEMA 8, to Flat PM Stepper Motors, our engineers have a solution for you. Two examples of improved performance characteristics are low oscillation and high response. III.- FHPP manual ‚[HOST]-CMM-FHPP- ‛: performance characteristics of stepper motor lab manual Description of the implemented Festo profiles for handling and positioning.

High torque within the low / mid-speed range is another great feature of stepper motors. size; this seems to give the best performance on most motors that we tested.C SERVO MOTOR AND PLOT ITS TORQUE SPEED CHARACTERISTICS. 1. Speed control of universal motor using A. Mailbox.

C. Curve one is denoted by a blue colour line is known as the Pull-in torque. 8. The speed – torque characteristics of DC SERVO MOTOR has a large Negatives Slope due to . 9. They are driven by a stepping sequence which is generated by a controller.

(B) TO STUDY D. LAB MANUAL (VI SEM ECE) Page 5 6. With the Hybrid stepper motor's multi-toothed rotor resemblance of the VR, and an axially magnetized concentric magnet around its shaft, the Hybrid stepper motor provides an increase in detent, holding and dynamic torque. For tables that use one motor for each axis, the motor cables should be attached to the ports labeled ‘Axis 1’ and. Thus, no angular position feedback is needed for many stepper motor applications; stepper motors are mostly used in open loop fashion. Stepper Motor Characteristics The performance of the stepper motor may be improved using a variable voltage drive. A stepper motor is a permanent magnet or variable reluctance dc motor that has the following performance characteristics: rotation in both directions, precision angular incremental changes, repetition of accurate motion or velocity profiles, a holding . These advantages are leading growing numbers of instrument builders to favor servo motors to boost their instrument performance.

Torque angle curve of a step motor is shown in fig it is seen that the Torque increases almost sinusoid ally, with angle θ from equilibrium. Adequate conclusions regarding motor performance characteristics are derived. Most suppliers provide speed – torque characteristic curves to provide an idea of what performance can be expected from a motor. Controlled HWR and FWR using RC triggering circuit Speed control of stepper motor.

Torque vs, Angle Characteristics The torque performance characteristics of stepper motor lab manual vs angle characteristics of a stepper motor are the relationship between the displacement of the rotor and the torque which applied to the rotor shaft when the stepper motor is energized at its rated voltage. Stepper motor interface with – Microcontroller 17 9. To reinforce experimentally the basic principles of electromechanical motion devices and to familiarize students with the operating characteristics of various electromechanical devices used in control applications including de, induction, brushless dc, and stepper motors. Oct 27,  · Finally, it's worth noting that LDO motors, makers of the stepper motors that Prusa current ships, has sent some samples out to various people of an updated stepper motor with similar characteristics to the Moons.

The motor operates by accurately synchronizing with the pulse signal output from the controller to the driver, achieving highly accurate positioning and speed control. A stepper motor, also known as step motor or stepping motor, is a brushless DC electric motor that divides a full rotation into a number of equal steps. 7. THEORY: The experiment is carried out in two steps. III.

Curve one is denoted by a blue colour line is known as the Pull-in torque. AIM: To study dc servo motor and plot its torque speed characteristics. Laboratory Exercise 3 - Unipolar Stepper Motor Objectives: 1. Matlab/Simulink is used as a simulation tool for hybrid stepper motor enabling motor transient characteristics of current, performance characteristics of stepper motor lab manual voltage, torque and speed to be obtained.

From left to right are common motor choices for linear-motion axes — BLDC, industrially enclosed smart stepper, stepper with IP20 rating and mounted control, and open-loop stepper motor. The hybrid stepper motor combines the best features of both the PM and VR type stepper. Speed control of a stepper motor. 8. Laboratory Exercise 3 - Unipolar Stepper Motor Follow the instructions on the Microcontroller User Manual or Lab Manual to create a program that provides performance characteristics of stepper motor lab manual the initialization and direction signals as well as the clock signal. (i)Torque-Angle curve. Hybrid Stepper Motors Hybrid stepper motors incorporate the qualities of both the VR and PM stepper motor designs.

CONTROL SYSTEM LAB (ECF) LAB MANUAL VI SEMESTER Department of Electronics & Computer Engg TO STUDY A STEPPER MOTOR & EXECUTE Ans. During this lab, you will determine its most relevant parameters and. Parallel / series inverter. We also offer Geared Stepper Motors for applications with higher torque requirements. Torque vs, Angle Characteristics The torque vs angle characteristics of a stepper motor are the relationship between the displacement of the rotor and the torque which applied to the rotor shaft when the stepper motor is energized at its rated voltage. Static characteristics. Microstepping drives significantly improve two phase step motor [HOST]: Alexandru Morar.

The movement of each step is precise performance characteristics of stepper motor lab manual and repeatable; therefore the motor's position can be controlled precisely without any feedback mechanism, as. Stepper motors effectively have multiple "toothed" electromagnets arranged around a central gear-shaped piece of iron. Publication - December P-2 Using This Manual Intended Audience This manual is designed for the qualified first time user who has a working knowledge of SLC ™ products. 8 Speed control of a separately excited DC motor. (ii)Torque current curve. II. The Torque pulse rate Characteristics of a Stepper Motor gives the variation of an electromagnetic torque as a function of stepping rate in pulse per second (PPS). Interfacing ADC and DAC.

Motor controllers CMMS-ST, for stepper motors Key features Performance characteristics Servo mode Encoder option (closed loop), in other words no step losses, following errors are corrected Travel program Linking of any number of position sets into a travel performance characteristics of stepper motor lab manual program Step criteria performance characteristics of stepper motor lab manual for the travel program possible via digital inputs, for example. Give explain the construction, the function and the characteristics of both Introduction In experiment-3 and 4, the speed of the DC-motor was controlled by using an open-loop voltage control. MOSFET (or) IGBT based single-phase full-bridge inverter connected to R- load. Contact a supplier or the parent company directly to get a quote or to find out a price or your closest point of sale. Familiarized with the unipolar stepper motor characteristics Theory. specifications. 3. When feeding the engine, and in sleep need a certain amount of torque to the rotor one step forward, this is known as holding torque or (Holding torque) and is specific for each engine.

Interfacing LED and PWM. Study of ARM evaluation system 2. One of the main features of servo motors is to generate flat torque from mid to high speed ranges. 3 2. A Stepper Motor is a type of Brushless DC Motor that divides a full rotation into several equal “steps”. The amplifier gain factor is kept at minimum gain.

Introduction Five - phase stepping motors in comparison with two phase stepping motors have improved performance characteristics because of its multiple number of phases. 1. Theory: A stepper motor is a brushless and synchronous motor which divides the complete rotation into number of steps. The procedure for setting the motor current level is also covered in this section. specifications. The characteristics of the motor in steady state is called static characteristics.

The Torque pulse rate Characteristics performance characteristics of stepper motor lab manual of a Stepper Motor gives the performance characteristics of stepper motor lab manual variation of an electromagnetic torque as a function of stepping rate in pulse per second (PPS). 8. voltage controller. performance characteristics of stepper motor lab manual In first case the motor is run without feedback.

Stepper Motor Performance Characteristics: Resolution: performance characteristics of stepper motor lab manual This is number of steps per revolution. Introduction to Stepper Motors Slide 1 Introduction to Stepper Motors Part 1: Types of Stepper Motors Hello, my name is Marc McComb, I am a Technical Training Engineer here at Microchip Technology performance characteristics of stepper motor lab manual in performance characteristics of stepper motor lab manual the Security, Microcontroller and Technology Division. An Introduction to Stepper Motors Xinda Hu University of Arizona College of Optical Sciences Introduction: A stepper motor is an electric motor that rotates in discrete step increments. Interfacing EPROM and interrupt. If necessary, obtain the proper training before using the Stepper Controller. Speed measurement of DC motor using optical sensor 23 V. NEMA 08 to NEMA 42 High Torque Stepper Motors - Available Online. Vary the frequency of the clock performance characteristics of stepper motor lab manual pulse on the program and comment on the motor characteristics when it is running.

C. 7.C. It is divided into two charteristics.

Limited High Speed Torque - In general, stepper motors have less torque at high speeds than at low speeds. Typical step angles for the HB stepper motor range from ° to ° ( – steps per revolution). EC EMBEDDED LABORATORY SYLLABUS LIST OF EXPERIMENTS 1. Table Comparison based performance characteristics of stepper motor lab manual on motor advantages and disadvantages Motor type Advantages Disadvantages plays a vital role in the performance of a stepper motor.

Basically, the motor torque is proportional to the motor current, as long as the current stays at a reasonable level. Hybrid Stepper Motors Hybrid stepper motors incorporate the qualities of both the VR and PM stepper motor designs. Speed measurement of DC motor using optical sensor 23 V. By increasing the voltage applied to the stepper motor in proportion to the velocity, the available torque will remain constant and the fan. Static characteristics. These two phase hybrid stepper motors are optimized for microstepping and give a good fit to the Characteristics of all QSH motors: NEMA 17 mounting configuration flange max.

Contact a supplier or the parent company directly to get a quote or to find out a price or your closest point of sale. Understand the unipolar stepper motor driver circuit 2. They draw the most current when performance characteristics of stepper motor lab manual they are doing no work at all. Interfacing LED and performance characteristics of stepper motor lab manual PWM. 9 Speed control of stepper motor. II.

Torque angle curve of a step motor is shown in fig it is seen that the Torque increases almost sinusoid ally, with angle θ from equilibrium. (i)Torque Angle curve. motor using an IGBT or MOSFET chopper. Motion Control Products There is a decision to be made when specifying motion products. An Introduction to Stepper Motors Xinda Hu University of Arizona College of Optical Sciences Introduction: A stepper motor is an electric motor that rotates in discrete step increments. Torque versus speed characteristics with all appropriate SLO-SYN Stepper Motors are given in Section 5. (i)Torque Angle curve.

Because of this, they tend to run hot. Apr 18, · As we reduce the speed of the motor the torque goes on increasing therefore the graph starts with a low value and rises to a high value approximately [HOST] rise in the graph is due to the rising speed- torque characteristics of AC servo motor. Most non-microstep enabled stepper motors will experience “uneven” step sizes when microstepped between their normal full step locations; however, the steps are monotonic in the correct direction, and are usually consistently located for a given position value. 8.

C. Mar 15,  · Generally, servo motor technology offers the advantages of more torque, higher speeds, and greater precision as compared to stepper motor technology in a similar size range. Thank you for downloading Introduction to Stepper Motors. Type key CMMS-ST-C CMM — S — ST — C8 — 7 Series CMM Motor controller Version S Standard Motor technology ST Stepper motor Rated motor current C8 8 A Input voltage 7 48 V DC. From Hybrid NEMA Stepper Motors, as small as NEMA 8, to Flat PM Stepper Motors, our engineers have a solution for you. The most important.

Notably this motor doesn't have the issue with the shaft profile, so stay tuned for a possible better alternative. voltage controller. With the Hybrid stepper motor's multi-toothed performance characteristics of stepper motor lab manual rotor resemblance of the VR, and an axially magnetized concentric magnet around its shaft, the Hybrid stepper motor provides an increase in detent, holding and dynamic torque.

Sep 30, · characteristics of electric motors, electric drives Speed Torque Characteristic of Separately Excited DC Motor: The circuit equation of a Speed Torque Characteristic of Separately Excited DC Motor whose armature, having a total of Z con­ductors, is wound for 2P poles (the brushes divide the winding into 2a parallel paths), is. Open loop performance 2. The phyMOTION TM freely programmable multi-axes motion controller integrates high performance drive capabilities (multi-axes synchronisation and interpolation) with PLC functionality (I/Os, modularity, fieldbus) for stepper motor driven applications. Micro controller based traffic light system 19 IV.

TO STUDY A STEPPER MOTOR & EXECUTE MICROPROCESSOR OR COMPUTER BASED CONTROL OF THE SAME BY CHANGING NUMBER OF STEPS, DIRECTION OF ROTATION & SPEED. 6. Static characteristics. The motor's position can then be commanded to move and hold at one of these steps without any position sensor for feedback (an open-loop controller), as long as the motor is carefully sized to. performance characteristics of stepper motor lab manual The hybrid stepper motor is more expensive than the PM stepper motor but provides better performance with respect to step resolution, torque and speed.

Interfacing ADC and DAC. Speed control of a separately excited D. Interfacing real time clock and serial port. v Dynamic characteristics. These advantages are leading growing numbers performance characteristics of stepper motor lab manual of instrument builders to favor servo motors to boost their instrument performance.

We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow [HOST] more. 10 Single phase fully controlled bridge converter with R & RL loads. Information and Instruction Manual for BS, BSW and SS Stepper Motor Controllers By this seems to give the best performance on most motors that we tested. CW and CCW designations refer to directions of stepper motor rotation.

Static characteristics of MOSFET and IGBT. When operating in either the Configuration or the Command mode, Module status is performance characteristics of stepper motor lab manual reported to the SLC Controller. (A) TO STUDY A. There are two characteristic curves 1 and 2 shown in the figure below.

7. a motor or motor drive for an application (or at least hopefully so). Characteristics of a Stepper Motor. A stepper motor is a permanent magnet or variable reluctance dc motor that has the following performance characteristics: rotation in both directions, precision angular incremental changes, repetition of accurate motion or velocity profiles, a holding torque at zero speed, and capability for digital control. The stepper motor is known by its property of converting a performance characteristics of stepper motor lab manual train of input performance characteristics of stepper motor lab manual pulses performance characteristics of stepper motor lab manual (typically square wave pulses) into a precisely defined increment in the performance characteristics of stepper motor lab manual shaft position. Speed control of D.

performance characteristics of stepper motor lab manual v Dynamic characteristics. Apr 18,  · As we reduce the speed of the motor the torque goes on increasing therefore the graph starts with a low value performance characteristics of stepper motor lab manual and rises to a high value approximately [HOST] rise in the graph is due to the rising speed- torque characteristics of AC servo motor. But how do you compare motor performance between motor suppliers. Characteristics of a Stepper Motor.

8. Different operating motor regimes are simulated as no-load and rated load operation. Microstepping drives significantly improve two phase step motor performance. The characteristics of the motor in steady state is called static characteristics. Adequate conclusions regarding motor performance characteristics are derived. Each pulse moves the shaft through a fixed angle.

Thank you for downloading Introduction to Stepper Motors. Theory: A stepper motor is a brushless and synchronous motor which divides the complete rotation into number of . motor performance characteristics of stepper motor lab manual using single semi converter. Optimally, the motor should be chosen to bring the required performance at the rated motor current.

Aim: To performance characteristics of stepper motor lab manual study implementation & interfacing stepper motor with microcontroller. (ii)Torque current curve. Speed control of D. The movement of each step is precise and repeatable; therefore the motor's position can performance characteristics of stepper motor lab manual be controlled precisely without any feedback mechanism, as. Most non-microstep enabled stepper motors will experience “uneven” step sizes when microstepped between their normal full step locations; however, the steps are monotonic. Wiring the Motors.

But how do you compare motor performance between motor suppliers. The procedure for setting the motor current level is also covered in this section. 3. Torque versus speed characteristics with all appropriate SLO-SYN Stepper Motors are given in Section 5. Close loop performance. motor using an IGBT or performance characteristics of stepper motor lab manual MOSFET chopper. If properly controlled, the number of steps that the motor moves is equal to the number of input command pulses.

I know that to use the USB BNC is not the better solution for stepper motor control, but right now we don’t have more budgets. Flashing of LEDS. Speed control of a stepper motor. Interfacing keyboard and LCD. Different operating motor regimes are simulated as no-load and rated load operation. Strain measurement system 25 Experimentation on the characteristics of LVDT position sensor with respect to the differential voltage 27 Find out all of the information about the Zaber Technologies product: electric rotary table / with stepper motor / horizontal / laboratory X-RSB-E series.

Static characteristics of SCR and DIAC. 8. Two examples of improved performance characteristics are low oscillation and high response.

Section 6, Troubleshooting, gives procedures to follow if the Translator/Drive fails to operate properly. servo or stepper motors are being used the signal generator sends signals to specific axis lines. 4. Stepper motor is a specially designed DC motor that can be driven by giving excitation pulses to the phase windings. TO STUDY A STEPPER MOTOR & EXECUTE MICROPROCESSOR OR COMPUTER BASED CONTROL OF THE SAME BY CHANGING NUMBER OF STEPS, DIRECTION OF ROTATION & SPEED. LAB MANUAL (VI SEM ECE) Page 5 6.

Introduction to Stepper Motors Slide 1 Introduction to Stepper Motors Part 1: Types of Stepper Motors Hello, my name is Marc McComb, I am a Technical Training performance characteristics of stepper motor lab manual Engineer here at Microchip Technology in the Security, Microcontroller and Technology Division. Interrupt performance characteristics of ARM and FPGA. (B) TO STUDY D. Power Electronics LAB MANUAL (10ECL78) Department of Electronics and communication Engineering 1 Static characteristics of SCR or DIAC. 5. The. 3 2.

Motor controllers CMMS-ST, for stepper motors Key features Performance characteristics Servo mode Encoder option (closed loop), in other words no step losses, following errors are corrected Travel performance characteristics of stepper motor lab manual program Linking of any number of position sets into a travel program Step criteria for the travel program possible via digital inputs, for example. mm * mm performance at the rated motor current. To reinforce experimentally the basic principles of electromechanical motion devices and to familiarize students with the operating characteristics of various electromechanical devices used in control applications including de, induction, brushless dc, and stepper motors. Interrupt performance characteristics of ARM and FPGA. performance characteristics of stepper motor lab manual Section 6, Troubleshooting, gives procedures to follow if the Translator/Drive fails to operate properly. The number performance characteristics of stepper motor lab manual of motors used and the speed that the motors can travel depends on the type of table.C SERVO MOTOR AND PLOT ITS TORQUE SPEED CHARACTERISTICS.

Type key CMMS-ST-C CMM — S — ST — C8 — 7 Series CMM Motor controller Version S Standard Motor technology ST Stepper motor Rated motor current C8 8 A . 2. Flashing of LEDS. Freely programmable motion controller (PMC) for multi axes stepper motor applications. Interfacing real performance characteristics of stepper motor lab manual time clock and serial port. If properly controlled, the number of steps that the motor moves is equal to the number of input command pulses.

The phyMOTION TM freely programmable multi-axes motion controller integrates high performance drive capabilities (multi-axes synchronisation and interpolation) with PLC functionality (I/Os, modularity, fieldbus) for stepper motor driven applications. DRV Dual Stepper Motor Controller and Driver 1 Features 3 Description The DRV provides a dual microstepping-capable 1• Dual PWM Microstepping Motor Driver stepper motor controller/driver solution for printers, – Built-In Microstepping Indexers scanners, and other office automation equipment – Up to A Current Per Winding. Servo motors are suitable for long-stroke operations performance characteristics of stepper motor lab manual (many rotations). (A) TO STUDY A. Some steppers are optimized for better high-speed performance, but they need to be paired. Interfacing EPROM and interrupt. Operation Using the Pulse and Direction Outputs If the Stepper Translator requires pulse. Sep 30,  · characteristics of electric motors, electric drives Speed Torque Characteristic of Separately Excited DC Motor: The circuit equation of a Speed Torque Characteristic of Separately Excited DC Motor whose armature, having a total of Z con­ductors, is wound for 2P poles (the brushes divide the winding into 2a parallel paths), is.

For a short time, the motor . Stepper motor interface with – Microcontroller 17 9. motor using single semi converter. For a short time, the motor current may be raised above this. 4. Find out all of performance characteristics of stepper motor lab manual the information about the Zaber Technologies product: electric rotary table performance characteristics of stepper motor lab manual / with stepper motor / horizontal / laboratory X-RSB-E series. Explain the difference between the unipolar stepper motor driver and bipolar stepper motor driver 3.

Lab Permanent Magnet Stepper Motor 1 Objectives In this laboratory experiment you will be working with a small 2-phase Permanent Magnet Stepper Motor standard frame size NEMA It is assumed that the motor parameters and the name-plate information are unknown. Micro controller based traffic light system 19 IV. DRV Dual Stepper Motor Controller and Driver 1 Features 3 Description The DRV provides a dual microstepping-capable 1• Dual PWM Microstepping Motor Driver stepper motor controller/driver solution for printers, – Built-In Microstepping Indexers scanners, and other office automation equipment – Up to A Current Per Winding. It is used in conjunction with a stepper motor to control the position of a rotating dial in performance characteristics of stepper motor lab manual the lab experiment later in the chapter.

The Stepper Controller can be performance characteristics of stepper motor lab manual configured for either type of translator. These four phase hybrid stepper motors are optimized for microstepping and give a good fit to the performance characteristics of stepper motor lab manual The torque figures detail motor torque characteristics for full step operation in order to allow simple performance at the rated motor current. At the same time, the power consumption of the motor (and driver) is proportional to the square of the motor current. Freely programmable motion controller (PMC) for multi axes stepper motor applications. Static characteristics. APPARATUS: DC SERVO MOTOR KIT AND DVM. Comparisons based on motor advantages and performance characteristics of stepper motor lab manual disadvantages, motor characteristics and different phases are tabulated in Tables ( - ). Speed control of a separately excited D.

Mailbox. Low Efficiency – Unlike DC motors, stepper motor current consumption is independent of load.


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